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Identifier 000446212
Title Προσδιορισμός επιπέδων ουσιών με ενδοκρινική δράση σε δείγματα βρεφικής φόρμουλας και βρεφικών τροφίμων
Alternative Title Determination of endocrine disruptors in infant formula and baby food samples
Author Πάγκαλου, Μαρίνα Μ.
Thesis advisor Ρίζος, Απόστολος
Reviewer Τζατζαράκης, Εμμανουήλ
Χατζηδάκη, Ελευθερία
Abstract Endocrine disruptors are environmental and food contaminants that pose a threat to human health, especially to vulnerable population, such as infants. The aim of this research is the determination of the levels of endocrine disruptors in commercially available infant formulas, baby milk and food. The substances studied include bisphenol A (BPA) and S (BPS), methyl (MeP) and propyl (ProP) parabens, HCB, DDT and its metabolites and PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180). The samples consisted of 42 commercially available infant formulas, 8 baby milk and 10 baby food samples. Samples were categorized by food type and processed by liquid-liquid extraction method. The analysis was held with Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography combined with mass spectrometry systems (LC-MS and GC-MS). After determining the concentration of the above substances in the samples, a risk assessment study was performed to assess the exposure of infants to them through diet. Linearity was acceptable for all substances analysed with LC-MS. The limit of detection was 0.03 ng/ml for MeP and ProP, 0.04 ng/ml for BPA and 0.06 ng/ml for BPS. Accuracy (% accuracy) ranged from 81% for BPS to 94% for BPA. BPA was detected by the LC-MS method in 55% of infant formula samples, 62% of baby milk samples and 10% of baby food samples, with mean concentration of 0.20 ng/ml, 0.19 ng/ml and 4.10 ng/ml respectively. BPS was not detected in baby food samples and the percentage of positive samples was 43% of infant formula and 50% of milk, with mean concentration of 0.47 ng/ml and 0.38 ng/ml, respectively. The percentage of positive infant formula samples for MeP was 45% and for ProP 88% with mean concentrations of 0.22 ng/ml and 0.12 ng/ml respectively. The percentage of positive milk samples for MeP was 38% with mean concentration 0.15 ng/ml and for ProP 88% and 0.13 ng/ml. Finally, in baby food the percentage of positive samples for MeP was 30% and for ProP 40% with mean concentrations of 1.44 ng/ml and 0.36 ng/ml, respectively. Similarly, linearity was acceptable for all substances analysed with GC-MS. The limit of detection ranged from 0.004 ng/ml for HCB and op-DDD to 0,036 ng/ml for the sum of pp-DDD and op-DDT and from 0,010 ng/ml for PCB-28 and PCB-52 to 0.178 ng/ml for PCB-180. At the same time, the % accuracy ranged from 67% for HCB to 113% for op-DDD and from 56.2% for PCB-118 to 115.1% for PCB-101. In the infant formula samples, the highest percentage of positive samples was for HCB and op-DDE with 98% and the lowest for the sum of pp-DDD and op-DDT with 17%. The corresponding mean concentrations were 0.257 ng/ml, 0.015 ng/ml and 0.154 ng/ml. In baby food the maximum percentage of positive samples and the maximum mean concentration were found in HCB with 90% and 0.242 ng/ml. Finally, HCB and op-DDE were detected in all of the milk samples, with mean concentrations 0.162 ng/ml and 0.019 ng/ml, respectively. Finally, PCB-153 and PCB-180 were not detected in any of the infant formula samples. The maximum percentage of positive samples was found for PCB-28 (42%), while the maximum mean concentration was detected for PCB-138 (1,856 ng/ml). In baby food samples the highest percentage of positive samples was found for PCB-28 (90%) and the maximum mean concentration (0.068 ng/ml), while PCB-101 and PCB-180 were not detected. PCB-28 was detected in all milk samples with an average concentration of 0.068 ng/ml, while PCB-153 was not detected. The maximum mean concentration was detected for PCB-180 and was 0.311 ng/ml. Risk assessment calculations were performed for infant formulas. The median Hazard Index (HI) values for BPS, BPA, MeP and ProP were less than 1, namely 1.110-3 , 8.210-4 , 2.010-9 and 2.210-8 , respectively. Median estimated daily intake (EDI) values were calculated for HCB 0.029 μg/kg bw/day, for op-DDE 0.0016 μg/kg bw/day, for pp-DDE 0.0022 μg/kg bw/day, for op-DDD 0.0003 μg/kg bw/day and for the sum of pp-DDD and op-DDT 0.0027 μg/kg bw/day. The median EDI values for PCB-28 were 0.0099 μg/kg bw/day, for PCB-52 0.00077 μg/kg bw/day, for PCB-101 0.0011 μg/kg bw/day, for PCB-118 0.0011 μg/kg bw/day, for PCB-138 0.018 μg/kg bw/day, for PCB-153 0.0045 μg/kg bw/day and for PCB-180 0.013 μg/kg bw/day.
Language Greek
Subject Baby foods
Endocrine disruptors
Infant formula
Risk assessment
Βρεφικά τρόφιμα
Βρεφικό γάλα
Εκτίμηση κινδύνου
Ενδοκρινικοί διαταράκτες
Issue date 2022-03-31
Collection   School/Department--School of Sciences and Engineering--Department of Chemistry--Post-graduate theses
  Type of Work--Post-graduate theses
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