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Identifier 000443516
Title Design and implementation of cache coherence engines for RISC-V systems
Alternative Title Σχεδίαση και υλοποίηση μηχανών συνοχής κρυφών μνημών για συστήματα RISC-V
Author Τοτόμης Σωτήριος Χ.
Thesis advisor Κατεβαίνης, Μανώλης
Reviewer Φατούρου, Παναγιώτα
Παπαευσταθίου, Βασίλης
Abstract Before the multi-core era, the performance of processor chips improved mostly by continuous increase of their clock frequency. Such high frequencies ended up in enormous power consumption figures and heat dissipation reached non-affordable levels, especially in large-scale systems such as Data Centers. In response to these issues, and until nowadays, manufacturers build chips which consist of multiple processing units that restore energy efficiency, silicon costs and improve system performance through work parallelization. In conjunction, there exists a continuously surging interest for energy-efficient RISC architectures and particularly the opensource RISC-V Instruction Set Architecture that can further reduce the cost of multi-core chips. Although shared memory multi-core systems tackle several problems, they also introduce several complications. Firstly, the increased communication costs between cores and memory while fetching instructions and data, secondly the orchestration among cores in order to maintain coherent copies of data, associated with the same address of memory, in their private L1 and/or L2 caches. The third important concern is the performance and energy cost of cache coherence operations to search and locate stale copies throughout the cache hierarchy, i.e. snoop operations. Above factors can become even more critical and challenging from the performance point-of-view as the number of cores in a system increases. This is due to the high occupancy of the on-chip interconnection network which is responsible for transferring requests and responses from cores to memory, and simultaneously supporting the appropriate cache coherence protocol. This thesis contributes with the design and implementation of cache coherence engines and interconnect infrastructure for RISC-V systems. Specifically this work makes the following contributions: i) the design of a hardware cache coherent on-chip interconnect based on ARM’s ACE protocol that employs snoop filtering structures, ii) the design of the hardware infrastructure to support cache coherence on the open-source CVA6 (former Ariane) RISC-V processor core, iii) the implementation of a multi-core system that supports the Modified-Shared-Invalid (MSI) cache coherence protocol. We implement and verify our cache-coherent RISC-V multi-core design in SystemVerilog and evaluate its performance using RTL simulation. For the evaluation we run indicative hand-made bare metal programs and selected Litmus tests to assess its correctness. As part of the performance measurements we present latency metrics in terms of clock cycles, clock frequency and FPGA resource utilization.
Language English
Subject Cache coherence interconnects
Cache coherence protocols
Memory Consistency
Multicore systems
Δίκτυα διασύνδεσης
Δίκτυα συνοχής κρυφών μνημών
Κρυφές μνήμες
Πολυπύρηνα συστήματα
Πρωτόκολλα συνοχής κρυφών μνημών
Συνέπεια μνήμης
Issue date 2021-11-26
Collection   School/Department--School of Sciences and Engineering--Department of Computer Science--Post-graduate theses
  Type of Work--Post-graduate theses
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