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Identifier 000430420
Title Τα απόβλητα των ελαιοτριβείων και οινοποιείων ως πηγή προϊόντων υψηλής προστιθέμενης αξίας για την ανθρώπινη υγεία (φάρμακα και διατροφικά συμπληρώματα) - οικονομικά και περιβαλλοντικά οφέλη
Alternative Title Waste of olive mills and wineries as a source of high added value products for human health (medicines and nutritional supplements) - economic and environmental benefits
Author Τσάρτσου, Ευαγγελία
Thesis advisor Καμπά, Μαριλένα
Reviewer Καστανάς, Ηλίας
Τσουβελέκας, Ευάγγελος
Λιονής, Χρήστος
Τζίνιους, Μαργαρίτα
Νότας, Γεώργιος
Συμβουλάκης, Εμμανουήλ
Abstract One of the most important problems in the field of agricultural industry, is the management of liquid and solid waste from olive oil mills and wineries with serious environmental impacts. Olive oil and wine wastes, due to their volume and organic load, constitute an important environmental burden. Their disposal is a major problem for olive oil mills and winemaking units, which spend large sums of money to remove them. However, their management can be turned into an economically and environmentally sustainable solution by using them to produce high value-added natural products (medicines, dietary supplements, functional food & cosmetics). These wastes are rich in phenolic compounds of great biological and pharmaceutical interest because of their antioxidant properties. Polyphenols are an important group of phytochemicals that have gained increased attention in research since they were found to be able to affect the growth of cancer cells and affect metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease. Some of these actions have already been recognized as “health claims”, while for others, there have been no confirmed epidemiological or experimental data so far or even the existing data are not strong enough to lead to new health claims. This present dissertation focuses exclusively on the beneficial effects of (poly) phenols of olive oil, wine and of their respective waste on human health and their economic exploitation in the fields of health, nutrition, pharmaceutics and cosmetology. The objectives of this study were: (a) a systematic review of the world literature and the meta-analysis of data, which could constitute health claims for the use of (poly) phenolic substances contained in olive oil and winery waste; and (b) the economic exploitation of polyphenols and other micronutrients of the pollutant load of these wastes in the fields of health, nutrition, pharmaceutics and cosmetology. In order to determine the precise role of olive oil in the modification of metabolic factors (glucose and circulating lipids), the present study carried out a meta-analysis network of 30 human intervention studies, in which olive oil was administered to a total of 7,688 individuals, mainly in the context of the Mediterranean diet. Moreover, in these 30 studies, a further research was conducted on the effect of olive oil polyphenols on the oxidative and inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. From the elaboration of the results, the following were found: 1) The present study demonstrates that the effect of olive oil on glucose and circulating lipids cannot be distinguished from the effect of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The only clear effect of a high polyphenol content (HPOO) olive oil on these parameters, is its effect on HDL cholesterol and the improvement of patients’ antioxidant and inflammatory status. The present study found a new evidence that the lower concentration of antioxidant polyphenols in olive oil may be sufficient for its beneficial effects (~ 60 mg/L of olive oil). In addition, the results suggest that the lipid fraction of olive oil may be responsible for some of its beneficial effects. 2) This research provides new data on the effect of olive oil and suggests a possible shift of the paradigm for its use in human nutrition and health as well as an additional intervention in pharmacological treatment. Olive oil could also serve as a useful tool to prevent atherosclerosis. 3) The reduction in oxidized LDL in plasma was correlated with the phenolic content of olive oil (OOHPC/OOLPC) administered and supports the hypothesis that consumption of phenolic-rich olive oil could provide benefits in preventing oxidative processes. 4) DNA & RNA oxidative damage markers were significantly decreased by both olive oil interventions OOHPC/OOLPC and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. This suggests that a moderate content of polyphenols (~60 mg polyphenols / L olive oil) may be sufficient to prevent the oxidation of nucleic acids. 5) Higher reductions in CRP and Interleukins (IL-6; IL-18; IL-7) were observed after the establishment of a Mediterranean dietary profile with the addition of olive oil, irrespective of its polyphenols content. The effect of olive oil on the above inflammatory markers was mainly evident in patients with established metabolic syndrome or in patients with cardiovascular disease. This demonstrates the potential protective/therapeutic use of olive oil in such conditions. Consequently, a Mediterranean-like diet is able to reduce the degree of inflammation and thus reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. In addition, influential factors were explored in the economic exploitation of polyphenols recovered from olive and winery waste and their conversion into high added value products (food supplements, functional food and cosmetics) or other innovative products in the fields of health, pharmacology, food and cosmetology. The investigation of the relevant factors was carried out by compiling two questionnaires with a target group of potential customers of the products concerned. The statistical analyses were performed with bilateral controls at a significance level of α=0.05 and a control strength of 1-β = 0.80. The software used was IBM SPSS Statistics v.21. In this context, the profile of potential consumers, the size of the market and demand, their necessity, as well as the level of consumer awareness of the products concerned, were investigated. In this respect, the conclusions that can be drawn after the results’ processing, are the following: 1) The profile of the consumer of food supplements or functional food and natural cosmetics could be a woman aged 36-55, married, public or private employee with a high level of education and falling into the middle and high income class. 2) The results of this survey indicate a positive attitude of the respondents and a willingness to buy natural products without synthetic fragrances and chemicals and prefer to be organic or certified products. In addition, their environmental concerns are strongly reflected in their preference for environmentally friendly products, placing a great emphasis on health, healthy eating and the use of natural products, without pesticides or genetically modified products 3) The most important factors influencing the respondents’ decision to purchase the products concerned are their interest in the prevention of health, healthy eating and the treatment of a health problem. They also clearly state their preference for natural products, such as natural cosmetics or organic products. In addition, middle-aged and upper-educated individuals show greater confidence in the purchase of the products in question to cope with a health problem. 4) Participants belonging to the higher educational level were more likely to be more willing to pay additional for food supplements and functional foods compared to those with average or lower level of educational attainment. Additionally, a high percentage of respondents already purchase natural cosmetics and a significant percentage states that they would pay extra money for the purchase of natural cosmetics. 5) Higher educated and high-income respondents know more and buy functional foods compared to those with low educational attainment and low income. In addition, women with a higher educational level and ecological consciousness are potential users of natural cosmetics. 6) Consumers of the present research trust the use of natural cosmetics, while they appear to have some reservations about the use of dietary supplements and functional food. As both of these kinds of food are not considered by the participants to be part of a healthy diet such as a traditional Mediterranean diet. A significant percentage of respondents said they were ignorant of functional foods in relation to dietary supplements and natural cosmetics that the participants reported being quite familiar with, at high rates. 7) Respondents prefer the health claims that appear on the labels of the products concerned to be scientifically documented. In addition, they require the additional information on the labels to indicate the expected health benefits and to be understandable. Participants also need information on the quality, naturalness and use of the products in question. They still want realism in advertising such as reporting on their side effects and clinical trial results. 8) Finally, the results of this study could be a useful tool to support: a) the promotion of new & innovative investments by oil mills and wineries, turning their waste into high value-added products with economic and environmental benefits, b) the utilization of the polyphenols of the examined waste as economic sources of natural antioxidants, so that they can easily replace the synthetic antioxidants in the sectors of pharmacology, food and cosmetics, c) the production and promotion of new products from the above industries that will respond to the new consumer trends and behaviours, as recorded in the present research, d) a proposal for a new health claim that the concentration of polyphenols in olive oil (~ 60mg / L) is sufficient to induce antioxidant protection, if verified in further prospective studies, e) the promotion of the Mediterranean diet model that olive oil is the main ingredient and its integration in the prevention and management of diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc.) & f) the contribution to the formation of European policies & strategies in the utilization of agricultural waste in products of high added value with economic and environmental benefits and favourable effects on human health.
Language Greek
Subject (Poly)phenols
Dietary supplements
Natural cosmetics
Natural cosmetics
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Issue date 2020-08-05
Collection   Faculty/Department--School of Medicine--Department of Medicine--Doctoral theses
  Type of Work--Doctoral theses
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