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Identifier 000416842
Title Προσδιορισμός των οργανοφωσφορικών φυτοφαρμάκων και των μεταβολιτών τους στο αμνιακό υγρό και μελέτη της επίδρασης τους στην εμβρυϊκή ανάπτυξη
Alternative Title Determination of organophosphates pesticides and their metabolites in amniotic fluid and study of their effect on fetal growth
Author Κουτρουλάκης, Δημήτριος
Thesis advisor Τσατσάκης, Αριστείδης
Reviewer Ματαλλιωτάκης, Ιωάννης
Κογιεβίνας, Εμμανουήλ
Μακρυγιαννάκης, Αντώνιος
Γερμανάκης, Ιωάννης
Γιαννακοπούλου, Χριστίνα
Τζατζαράκης, Εμμανουήλ
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate fetal exposure to organophosphate pesticides by measuring their non-specific dialkylphosphate metabolites (DAPs) in amniotic fluid, and to examine the potential association between prenatal exposure and fetal growth. The study was carried out between August 2006 and May 2008. Amniotic fluid samples were collected from 415 women carrying a singleton pregnancy during the second trimester of pregnancy via amniocentesis (for medical indications), to the Fetal-Maternal Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. The samples were analyzed to the laboratory of Toxicology, Medical School, University of Crete. The determined organophosphate pesticides metabolites were dimethyl phosphate (DMP), dimethyl thiophosphate (DMTP), diethyl phosphate (DEP), diethyl thiophosphate (DETP) and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP). DAPs were extracted by liquid–liquid extraction and measured by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry. Twenty two pregnancies resulted in either fetal demise or termination of pregnancy due to chromosomal abnormalities or major fetal defects. Mean maternal age was 32.7 (SD = 5.7). The mean gestational age at amniocentesis was 18.5 weeks (SD = 2.5). Exposure to organophosphate pesticides expressed as sums of DMPs, DEPs, DAPs in amniotic fluid samples ranged from 0.07 to 222.9 ng/ml, 0.19 to 254.3 ng/ml, and 0.05 to 252.6 ng/ml, respectively. DEP was the metabolite with the higher frequency of detection (90.5%), followed by DETP (74.0%), DMP (60.0%) and DEDTP (39.5%). Almost all amniotic fluid samples (97.8%) provided at least one positive metabolite of pesticides (DMP, DEP, DMTP, DETP, DEDTP), which are common metabolites of about 75% of organophosphate pesticides. DAPs levels did not differ between urban and rural areas (97.8% in urban areas versus 97.9% in rural areas). This makes difficult to pinpoint if the dominant source of exposure is the diet and home pesticide use or agriculture. Maternal age does not affect levels of sumDAPs (p> 0.400). All measured DAPs in the amniotic fluid seem positively associate with each other (p <0.002) and this could potentially be attributed to the simultaneous exposure of the participants to methyl and ethyl organophosphate pesticides. There was no statistically significant difference with neonatal gender and the percentage of the head circumference in the levels of DAPs. Macrosomic neonates had significantly higher sum levels of DMPs (p= 0.043), which exerted a linear positive association with birth-weight centile (b= 4.43, p= 0.016). There is also a seasonal variation in the levels of DAPs which can be explained by the use of specific organophosphate pesticides in certain types of cultivations. The sumDMPs showed elevated levels in autumn of 2006 and 2007 and spring 2008. DMPs derived of O,Odimethylsubstituted organophosphate pesticides such as malathion and dimethoate. The most probable cause of increased dimethyl phosphate metabolite levels in the autumns of 2006 and 2007 is the systematic spraying of olive oil trees for dacus oleae using fenthion and dimethoate during the period between August and September which was approved by the Ministry of Rural Development & Food in Greece. The sumDEPs showed elevated levels in winter 2006–2007 and autumn 2007. DEPs derived from O,Odiethyl- substituted organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos and diazinon and their elevated levels may be due to the widespread use of diazinon in vineyards and fruit. Conclusively, as DAPs are detectable in amniotic fluid they may be used as a potential biomarker of fetal exposure to organophosphate pesticides. Sum levels of DMPs appear to be associated with birth weight independently of other covariates.
Language Greek
Subject Daps
Issue date 2018-07-18
Collection   Faculty/Department--School of Medicine--Department of Medicine--Doctoral theses
  Type of Work
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