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Identifier 000400067
Title Ακτινομετρική μέθοδος αναγνώρισης του φύλου του σκελετού με βάση τα μετακάρπια οστά και τις πτέρνες
Alternative Title Sexual dimorphism based on digital radiographs of the metacarpals and the calcanei
Author Νάθενα , Δέσποινα
Thesis advisor Μιχαλοδημητράκης, Ε.
Reviewer Τζανάκης, Ν.
Κρανιώτη, Φ
Καραντάνας, Α.
Περυσινάκης, Κ.
Τζαρδή, Μ.
Αλμπαντάκη, Κ.
Abstract SEXUAL DIMORPHISM BASED ON DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHS OF THE METACARPALS AND THE CALCANEI Introduction The main goal in the forensic examination of a deceased, except for the cause, manner and the time of death, is the identification. When the face and the fingerprints are well preserved, the identification process can be concluded without any particular difficulties. However, when presented with cases of decomposition or fire victims these features can be missing. Difficulties increase if the only biological material available for examination is limited to a few bones. Accordingly, the development of new techniques, which may be applied both in forensic anthropology and osteoarchaeology, are required in order to effectively perform a biological profile of the skeletal remains present. The examination of morphological characteristics of the skeleton, which are highly dimorphic, can lead to the classification of the samples in regards to determine sex. Some bones, such as the pelvis and skull, vary significantly in males and females. The fact that these bones are not always present for examination created the need to develop sex identification techniques for other bones, such as the long bones, the scapula, etc. Additionally, the repeated attempt of measuring skeletal remains bears the risk of damaging the sample. Such an event is not desired, particularly in forensic cases in which the bones serve as evidence or in when examining unique archaeological material. A simple but effective way to examine human remains is radiography, which is already used in cases of decomposed bodies, as well as in mass disaster events. Lately, scientists have develop identification methods based on measurements of long bones in radiographs, showing similar results in comparison to the classic osteometric methods. This radiometric method has the potential to become an application in the everyday forensic practice. Aim of the study The purpose of this research is the development of specific anthropometric techniques in order to determine the characteristics of sexual dimorphism. In addition, as a database for the Cretan population will be created, it will be possible for the first time to compare this sample to other population groups. The radiometric method in metacarpals and calcanei is expected to give satisfactory results to an extent that is scientifically accepted as reliable in forensic practice. This application should lead quickly and easily to determination of sex in cases of mass disasters, thus speeding up the identification process. Material and Methods The skeletal material was selected from the Cretan collection, a modern osteological collection housed at the Department of Forensic Sciences of the University of Crete. The collection includes Cretans who died between 1968 and 1998. Using a digital caliper, 7 measurements were taken on each one of the right and left metacarpal bones. Right metacarpal bones were examined from 77 skeletons, and left metacarpal bones from 81 skeletons. Also, 174 right calcanei and 164 left calcanei were examined. For each calcaneus 10 measurements were taken. This is the first study of a Cretan population, where measurements from digital radiographs of metacarpals and calcanei were taken in order to determine sex. A total of 154 pairs of right and left metacarpal bones were digitally x-rayed. Four radiometric measurements were taken for each right and left metacarpal bone and one radiometric measurement on the reference point (metal ruler with known dimensions). Furthermore, 175 pairs of calcanei were digitally x-rayed in superior position, and 166 right and 157 left calcanei were digitally x-rayed in lateral position. Six radiometric dimensions were measured on all left calcanei, in superior view, and 4 in lateral view. Discriminant function analysis was performed using SPSS 13 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). Results Osteometry: -The differences between the means in males and females were significant (p< 0.001) for all measurements in all cases. -There are statistically significant differences between the mean values of left and right bones for most of the variables at p<0.05. -Sex determination of the metacarpals based on the osteometric method gave correct classification rates up to 81% for univariate and up to 85.1% for the multivariate equations. The equation with the largest percentage of correct classification for the left metacarpal bones was noted for MTC II (85.1%), and MTC III (82.7%) for the right metacarpal bones. -For the left calcanei the percentage of correct classification using a single variable ranged from 71.4% to 82.4%, and for the right calcenei from 72% to 80.3%. The rates were improved up to 84% in both cases when combinations of variables were used. -These results are inconsistent with two recent studies for metacarpals and calcanei performed on a modern skeletal collection from Athens. This clearly indicates the need to provide specific standards for the Cretan population, in order to achieve a more reliable estimation of sex in forensic cases. -The posterior probabilities for the highes performing equations were calculated. Radiometry: -Statistically significant differences were found between left and right metacarpal bones for most variables. -The determination of sex using digital radiographs in metacarpals and calcanei is possible by classifying correctly up to 89% and 85% respectively. Conclusions: 1. The osteometric method of metacarpal bones and the calcanei is highly accurate in the Cretan population, and a database of anthropometric data of these specific bones was created for the first time for this population. 2. The determination of sex using digital radiographs of metacarpals and calcanei is possible, classifying correctly up to 89.4% and 84.7%, respectively. 3. The radiometric method may alternatively be used in cases of mass disasters or charred victims. In addition, it is the method of choice when examining unique and sensitive archaeological material, as it carries no risk of their destruction. 4. The equations derived from the bone collection of Athens are not appropriate for the Cretan sample. It is therefore important to develop separate standards in order to determine sex accurately for this population.
Language Greek
Subject Forensic anthropology
Sexual dimorphism
Ιατροδικαστική ανθρωπολογία
Issue date 2016-03-24
Collection   Faculty/Department--School of Medicine--Department of Medicine--Doctoral theses
  Type of Work--Doctoral theses
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