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Identifier 000405281
Title Βιοηθικές διαστάσεις της γνωστικής ενίσχυσης σε ενήλικα/υγιή άτομα και νέους-φοιτητές
Alternative Title Bioethical dimensions of cognitive enhancement to adult healthy people and young people-students
Author Μιχαλακέα, Αγγελική
Thesis advisor Τσινόρεμα, Σταυρούλα
Reviewer Δαλέζιος, Ιωάννης
Πετούση, Βασιλική
Abstract The aim of this thesis is to investigate the challenges that pertain to the cognitive enhancement concerning healthy adult individuals and consequently to young students. It is attempted to distinguish therapy from enhancement. The term “enhancement” is generally used when the planned activity is not curative. When the targeted activity is normal it may mean that the use of aid may be harmful to the user. Cognitive enhancement can be achieved by drugs such as methylphenidate in attention deficit disorder and it may concern the higher cognitive functions. Drugs are of two types, those that form the receptors of glutamic acid and those that increase the protein in the synapses of neurons and allow the consolidation of memory. The plasticity of the brain can be influenced by drugs such as methylphenidate, modafinil. The main goal of cognitive enhancers is memory enhancement, but it is difficult to speak of selective pharmaceutical improvement. There is a lot of vagueness regarding the ways one can achieve the pharmacological intervention in memory. Cognitive enhancement raises ethical questions, because it concerns the conflict of two cognitive patterns, the laborious effort for self-development and the other the interventionist enhancement. Pharmacological enhancement directs biological development through a mechanical method. Through for and against presentations, we are led to the conclusion that the moral stake is the danger to the moral status of the person. A pressing moral question is whether cognitive improvement may lead to moral improvement. For supporters of cognitive enhancement, such as John Harris, there are no moral hazards of biomedical enhancements and moral enhancement should be compulsory when it is safe and effective. For proponents of enhancement, cognitive enhancement, by improving reasoning abilities, could improve people's ability to effectively evaluate the requirements and needs of others. For opponents of cognitive enhancement, the intervention brings about a change of personality. By enhancing an asymmetrical dependency relationship is created by a new formulation. Someone under the model of enhancement is not themselves. The pursuit of health is a major aim of the person. The latter should not harm his health deliberately or recklessly, because it undermines one‟s personal identity. One‟s dependency on these substances may turn out to be hazardous for one‟s health. Misuse may bring about harmful effects on a person‟s biological status and on one‟s moral status. It must be stressed that the moral limit of interventions to someone‟s body for cognitive enhancement is and should be respect of people‟s moral status. The biological status is closely connected with moral status. The risks of using enhancement formulations are unknown in terms of long-term damage. Crucial qualitative and quantitative social research has been conducted and has shown dimensions concerning the ethical issues of cognitive enhancement among different groups of people such as students, parents, health professionals. Important findings are associated with bioethical principles. As far as the non- maleficence ethical principle is concerned, some factors which affect the youngster‟s attitude is the awareness of the side effects and the possible dangers as well as the different ways of access and the acquisition of the substances itself. Consequently the doctor‟s role as well the medical supervision on healthy people who make use of such substances of cognitive enhancement is substantial. Regarding the ethical principle of autonomy, social pressure plays an important role because it creates the perception of what ethical right is as far as the cognitive enhancers are concerned. Some youngsters pretend having symptoms of destruction when at the same time the use of these substances is becoming widely spread as it is thought to be the mean of becoming successful in an antagonistic work environment. Besides, the use of cognitive enhancement is not only an issue of individual choice, but also an access matter which involves the ethical principle of justice. Social pressure is a complicated phenomenon and it is connected with the excessive illegal prescription, as well as the off- label substances. Moreover it is interconnected with public health issues, when somebody else is deprived of it and they may need them for therapeutic purposes. It is worth mentioning that somebody who is dependant on such substances cannot be oneself and create one‟s own biohistory. For the above reasons it is significant to pay a closer look, at the youngsters‟ and employees‟ opinion who are working in an antagonistic workplace. Moreover students‟ opinions who sit exams to get into university are also important. More specifically, it is of great importance to examine the role of success itself so as to preserve our self- understanding of moral status as a source of ethical responsibility of the human being.
Language Greek
Subject Awareness of the side effects
Cognitive ehancement
Dependency relationship
Ethical responsibility
Moral status
Social pressure becoming successful
Ways of access and acquisition of the substances
Γνωστική ενίσχυση
Ενημέρωση παρενεργειών
Επιδίωξη επιτυχίας
Ηθική ευθύνη
Ηθική υπόσταση
Κοινωνική πίεση
Σχέση εξάρτησης
Τρόποι πρόσβασης και χορήγησης ουσιών
Issue date 2016
Collection   School/Department--School of Philosophy--Department of Philosophy & Social Studies--Post-graduate theses
  Type of Work--Post-graduate theses
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