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Identifier 000421856
Title Αρχιγένεια Εκπαιδευτήρια και γυναικεία διδασκαλική κινητικότητα και κοινωνικότητα : συμβολή στις διαδικασίες εκσυγχρονισμού και εθνικής συγκρότησης στο οθωμανικό και ελληνικό πολιτικό πλαίσιο (1857-1922)
Alternative Title Archigeneion institute and women teacher mobility and sociability : contribution to the modernization and nation-building process under ottoman and greek rule (1857-1922)
Author Παλάζη Μαριάνθη Φ.
Thesis advisor Δαλακούρα, Κατερίνα
Reviewer Ζιώγου-Καραστεργίου Ρούλα
Εξερτζόγλου Χάρης
Σταματόπουλος Χάρης
Θεοδώρου Βασιλική
Βαφέας Νικόλαος
Αναστασόπουλος Αντώνης
Abstract This doctoral research on the Archigeneion Institute (1857-1922) had two main aims: firstly, studying the continuities and discontinuities in the operation of the school during its lifespan, and secondly, examining the mobility and sociability of the teaching academy graduates during this period and beyond until 1949 (when the third association established by Archigeneion graduates was founded). The research data are drawn from the full range of sources emerging from the transition from traditional to modern historiography, written and other (visual, oral and relics of material culture), where even the absence of sources is regarded as a false source for the questions raised. These data are interpreted through the application of the documentation principle, supported by theories and conclusions drawn not only from social and cultural history, but also from disciplines such as the history of communication and legal science concerning the public image, political theory on language rights, and the feminist philosophy of the self /selves. The Archigeneion Institute was co-founded by Professor Sarantis Archigenis of the Imperial School of Medicine and his wife Eleni in his birthplace, Epivates in (Eastern) Thrace. It was inspired by the Enlightenment ideals of progress through education and the participation of all individuals, regardless of social origin, and aimed to contribute to the modernization and nation-building of the Greek Orthodox community in the context of the Ottoman reform movement. The Archigeneion Institute consisted of a 0.5-hectare girls’ complex of four buildings – Girls’ School, Church, Orphanage/Boarding School and Nursery – and a 3.5-hectare boys’ complex of two buildings: a Boys’ High School taking orphans and boarders, and the Archigenis Residence for the school directors. The school’s operation was uninterrupted and turbulent. However, this continuity only applies to the girls’ complex, which operated from its establishment to 1922, making it one of the oldest and longest-running schools of the Greek-Orthodox community; the boys’ complex ceased to operate 26 years after its establishment and its property was transferred to the girls’ complex. Thus the operation of the Archigeneion Institute was subject to radical changes which affected not only its structure but also its administration and the schooling provided, and even the extensive reputation of the school. Consequently, the school was subject to a series of different administrative schemes and schooling methods (with varying numbers of buildings operational in each): the Archigenis family administration (1857-1892), mainly influenced by the French educational system; the Patriarchal administration (1892-1921), during which the school was a national higher institute of education; and the administration of the Greek Civil Administration of Thrace ([1919]1921-1922), when it was modeled on the Arsakeion Girls’ School of Athens. The perception of the educational work carried out by the Archigeneion Institute also changed: its positive public image and wide reputation during the Archigenis family administration declined towards the end of the same period, making its public image ambiguous, and reducing its reputation in both contemporary and later historiography. The Archigeneion Institute experienced violent rifts during the First Balkan War and the First World War, interrupting its operation, but also intensive mobilization for its reopening. Some educational characteristics remained stable over the different administration periods: the continuous dialogue with the European pedagogical and musical currents, the devotion to church music, the practical focus of the school. Another lasting feature was the free education of orphans and girls of all social strata, and, following the imposition of tuition fees on girls from affluent families, the free education of lower-class girls, who were always more numerous and those who usually entered the teaching profession. The social hierarchy was steadily maintained through the different goals of each class: high-school diplomas for the affluent girls and teaching diplomas for the rest. The practical focus of the school and the lower social status of the teaching academy graduates defined the special ethos/habitus of the graduates, demonstrated in their acceptance of teaching positions in schools of the periphery no matter how far they were from Istanbul, thereby affecting both their mobility and their sociability. The network of their mobility gradually extended in every direction: west to the Adriatic Sea, north to Southern Russia, east past the Black Sea and south to Egypt, with the exception of Western Asia Minor, where the city of Smyrna dominated in the educational field. The present study focused on the Thracian and Asia Minor (north-central) part of the network, revealing, inter alia, the centrality of the network due to the concentration of graduates available for work in a single place (Epivates, Xastero and other neighboring villages). This brought the Asia Minor region closer in a way, as community elders were sent to select teachers to work in their areas. The study also revealed the distinctive features of each region: the secret routes by which graduates were sent to Slavic-speaking districts and villages in the Thracian part of the network during the anti-Bulgarian struggle, and the double function of the network in the Turkish-speaking Orthodox areas of the Asia Minor sector: professional and/or for the purpose of marriage. Sociability was studied from the building of the graduates’ self-esteem to their exercise of autonomy, taking into account the “portraits” of graduates assembled based on the available sources and with the assistance of their families. Specifically, the graduates’ self-esteem was built through their entrance into the community of Archigeneion graduates (“Archigenides”) and the way in which the founders were promoted as models of that community. This was not simply for their charitable deeds and their contribution to society, but also as models of the modernist self: Sarantis Archigenis, a man of “humble” origins, was praised for his love of learning and his personal struggle to educate himself, and also as a model of social and economic betterment, while Eleni Archigenous, of “aristocratic” family, was a model of the new woman, capable of providing inspiration, assuming multiple roles and operating independently. As regards the exercise of autonomy, the graduates of the teaching academy, many of whom wished to remain in the profession from an early stage (their numbers began to increase from the end of the 1875-1873 founding period), at a time when it was customary for women to stop teaching after marriage, soon found themselves plunged in the vortex of private and public space. These spaces, in the patriarchal view, are separate, the former for women and the latter for men, and the graduates of the Archigeneion Institute had to develop their own strategies in order to remain in the public space. The data on the graduates' response to the requirements of private and public space record individual and collective efforts to overcome the limitations by means of multiform adaptations: temporary non-participation in the profession, combining married life with teaching, avoiding creating their own families, and collective intervention before and after 1922.
Language Greek
Subject Archigeneion institute
Female education
Greek-Orthodox community
Ottoman empire
Thrace administration
Women teacher mobility and sociability
Αρχιγένεια Εκπαιδευτήρια
Γυναικεία διδασκαλική κινητικότητα & κοινωνικότητας
Γυναικεία εκπαίδευση
Εθνική συγκρότηση
Ελληνική πολιτική διοίκηση Θράκης
Ελληνορθόδοξη κοινότητα
Οθωμανική αυτοκρατορία
Issue date 2019-03-22
Collection   School/Department--School of Philosophy--Department of Philosophy & Social Studies--Doctoral theses
  Type of Work--Doctoral theses
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