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Identifier 000388434
Title Μελέτη και αξιολόγηση της διαδικασίας βιοξήρανσης κτηνοτροφικών υπολειμμάτων
Alternative Title Study and evaluation of livestock waste bio-drying procedure
Author Γάλλιου, Φανή Δ
Thesis advisor Στεφάνου, Ευριπίδης
Reviewer Μανιός, Θρασύβουλος
Κατσαράκης Νικόλαος
Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the development and the assessment - environmental and economic – of a procedure that allows the simultaneous conversion of livestock wastes and olive mill wastewater into organic fertilizers, in order to be exploit in agriculture and reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. Composting and solar drying procedures (technologies with low operating and investment cost) are to be used for this purpose. As regards to solar drying technology, utilizes the most available energy source in Greece - and in the Mediterranean basin, that of solar energy. The dependence of agriculture from nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in combination with the fact that phosphorus and potassium are available on our planet in finite quantities, have led many researchers to find ways of re-using them. Both, potassium and phosphorus are minerals, in contrast to nitrogen. The available amounts of these nutrients is estimated to be depleted within this century and may lead to a global food production crisis. At this point it should be mentioned that these elements are the key components of chemical fertilizers. Identifying recycling practices and use products containing significant amounts of these nutrients, is the goal of this work. Both livestock waste and olive mill wastewater are rich in N, P and K. Manure and olive mill waste water are used in order to produce a high quality compost, equivalent in nutrition to that of chemical fertilizers while eliminating the environmental impacts generated by the inappropriate discharge of the olive mill waste water or of manure. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of sustaining the composting and drying process by sequential applications of OMW during the composting process of manures. It is anticipated that this regime will allow inductions of microbial activity to aid decomposition and detoxification of the OMW. Olive mill wastewater has been discharged traditionally in water ways untreated in Mediterranean countries impacting aquatic biota and surface water quality deterioration. It is expected that a significant impact in the area of resource recycling and reuse of agricultural wastes and bi-products, as the water quality problem of olive mill waste water will be eliminated, farmers will rely on local organic fertilizer that will improve soil health and it will be independent of the increases in pricing of commercial fertilizers. In this respect, two successive composting procedures of fresh manures [poultry manure (PM), cow manure (CM) and pig manure (PM)] with addition of fresh OMW took place and after composting a solar drying procedure took place to the final compost, also with addition of fresh OMW. Evaluation of the final product was performed by agronomic trials. More specific, agronomic values of the obtained composts were tested and examined for impacts on tomato, pepper and cucumber plants. Physico-chemical properties (pH, electrical conductivity and concentration of phenolic compounds) of soils amended with the prepared composts were assessed to determine resulting impacts of the applied OMW. It appeared that for cow manure the composting process began with a ratio N / K / P of 1.0 / 1.6 / 0.7 and after the completion of solar drying, this ratio was 3.1 / 5.7 / 1.7. For poultry manure, the composting process began with a ratio N / K / P equal to 2.2 / 3.8 / 1.2 and after the completion of solar drying, this ratio was 3.3 / 6.8 / 1 8. For the third material, pig manure, the composting process began with a ratio N / K / P of 1.2 / 0.2 / 1.1, and after the completion of solar drying, this ratio was 2.8 / 3.6 / 1.6. After agronomic trials it was found significant phytotoxicity on the final product due to the presence of phenols because of the significant amount of OMW added to the overall process. In conclusion, it could be mentioned that the final product, could be an organic fertilizer, overcoming the characteristics of compost. But however, for the specific materials used in the present work and for the specific repetition, for the time lasted, the final product cannot replace a chemical fertilizer. It appears, however, that within a larger repetition cycle of composting procedure - solar drying - composting procedure waste CONDENSATION can be realized, creating with simple and sustainable energy technologies an organic product, competitive to chemical fertilizers. An energy sustainable process of "condensation" of P and K is the main aim of the present work, in order to produce a high quality fertilizer. Reduction of environmental footprint of the plants which produce these wastes will be a side effect of this procedure.
Language Greek
Subject Compost
Olive mill wastewater
Solar drying
Ηλιακή ξήρανση
Οργανικό λίπασμα
Υγρά απόβλητα ελαιοτριβείων
Issue date 2014-11-21
Collection   Faculty/Department--Faculty of Sciences and Engineering--Department of Chemistry--Post-graduate theses
  Type of Work--Post-graduate theses
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